The crashing waves gently lap against the sandy shores of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina as seashells tumble in the surf. Children splash in the frothy water while parents stroll the beach hand in hand. A cool ocean breeze carries the scent of salt, sounds of gulls, and endless summer memories.

Yet scattered across these idyllic beaches, a secret dark treasure lies half-buried, waiting to be discovered. Sharp black triangular fossils as dark as night, relics from a vanished prehistoric world far different than today. Million year old teeth from sharks that once dominated the warm coastal waters here long before the first human footsteps left prints in the sand.

These fossilized shark teeth hold clues to that ancient ecosystem lost in deep time. Their ominous black coloration resulting from unique processes of mineralization and fossilization different than shark teeth found elsewhere around the world. What causes this dark staining, and what ancient sharks do these enigmatic fossils originate from? The geology, biology, and fossilization processes all play roles in creating these blackened windows into the past.

A Prehistoric Underwater World

A Prehistoric Underwater World

Millions of years ago during the Miocene Epoch, the waters off the coast of modern day Myrtle Beach, South Carolina teemed with prehistoric marine life. This region was part of a vast prehistoric ocean ecosystem extending through the southeastern United States.

Numerous species of sharks including massive mega predators like the 60-foot long Megalodon ruled the warm salty waters in search of food. Schools of fish like jacks, snappers, and groupers swam through lush kelp forests swaying gently in the current. Giant sea turtles paddled through the waves, while primitive whales like sperm whales and baleen whales filter fed on plankton. Below on the seafloor, large mollusks like nautilus shellfish crawled among coral reefs.

All these organisms left behind traces that provide clues into this vanished underwater world. The fossil record at Myrtle Beach is especially rich with shark teeth dating back millions of years, allowing glimpses into the sharks that once dominated these prehistoric oceans. Many of these fossilized teeth found today exhibit a characteristic black coloration unlike many other shark tooth finds.

Why Do Shark Teeth Fossilize?

But before exploring why fossil shark teeth at Myrtle Beach are black, it helps to understand why shark teeth readily fossilize in the first place compared to other shark anatomy. Shark skeletons are primarily composed of cartilage, which decays relatively quickly after death. The mineralized teeth however, have a better chance of permineralizing and fossilizing over geologic timescales.

Shark teeth are composed of calcium phosphate in the form of fluorohydroxyapatite crystals held together by collagen proteins. This mineralized structure is deposited in layers of dentine and enamel, providing hardness and serration to enable grasping slippery prey.

Sharks continuously shed thousands of teeth throughout life, and after death these teeth become scattered across the seafloor. Here, the soft collagen proteins decay over weeks and months, leaving the apatite crystals behind. Sediments gradually cover the teeth, allowing groundwater rich in dissolved minerals to infiltrate the tiny pores and cavities within the tooth.

The Permineralization Process

This sets the stage for permineralization – the teeth dissolving and recrystallizing with new minerals deposited from the surrounding sediments. The original apatite crystals dissolve away molecule by molecule, replaced by new minerals like pyrite, quartz, or calcite.

Tiny pyrite crystals may nucleate on the tooth surface, spreading through microscopic channels in the dentine layers. At the same time, calcite and silica saturated waters permeate and recrystallize the enameloid ultrastructure. These mineral crystals interlock and bond, replicating the original shape and form of the tooth anatomy while still retaining incredible detail of serrations, cusplets, and root structures.

The end result of permineralization is an extremely detailed fossil replica of the original tooth. Calcite or silica replace the original enamel while pyrite replaced the dentine and pulp cavity. This pyritization process involving iron sulfide compounds is key to understanding the coloration of Myrtle Beach shark teeth as shall be seen.

The Unique Geology of Myrtle Beach

What is it about the Myrtle Beach area that produces fossil shark teeth with black or dark gray coloration? The answer lies in the local geology and the way fossils formed in this coastal region.

During the Early to Middle Miocene epoch around 5 to 20 million years ago, the Myrtle Beach area was completely submerged by a prehistoric ocean with water depths up to 500 feet. This allowed large populations of sharks and other marine life to thrive in the warm waters. As these sharks fed and migrated through the region, millions of teeth were shed and became deposited on the seafloor sediments.

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The sediments in this area gradually lithified into a rock unit called the Calabash Formation, part of the widespread Cooper Group marine sediments found throughout the Carolinas. This unit consists of poorly consolidated sands, clay, mud, with scattered phosphate nodules and fossils.

Importantly, the Calabash Formation contains abundant glauconite – a greenish silicate mineral rich in iron and potassium. Glauconite forms in marine sediments and contributes to the greenish-gray colors of this rock unit.

The Calabash Formation also contains pyrite – iron sulfide compounds. The abundance of pyrite and glauconite in the surrounding sediments facilitated the pyritization process as groundwaters percolated through fossil shark teeth for millions of years.

Black Teeth Caused by Pyritization

Black Teeth Caused by Pyritization

As pyrite infiltrated the microscopic pores and channels within fossilized shark teeth, it created new mineral crystals that replicated the original tooth structures. This pyrite absorption is primarily responsible for staining Myrtle Beach shark teeth black or dark gray.

Pyrite or fool’s gold is an iron disulfide mineral with a pale yellowish color. But as pyrite oxidizes, it forms iron oxide compounds limonite and hematite which display brown, reddish-brown, to black colors. Teeth with oxidized pyrite take on these darker hues.

Glauconite in the adjacent sediments may have also facilitated the black and greenish-gray coloration of some Myrtle Beach shark teeth. This soft potassium-rich mineral contains iron which likely contributed to pyrite crystallization during permineralization.

Additionally, organic compounds from decayed collagen or other residues could have reacted with iron during pyritization to produce black iron oxides and black pigmentation. The end result is many Myrtle Beach shark teeth exhibit dark gray, charcoal gray, jet black, or dark brown coloration from millions of years of pyrite and iron mineral absorption.

Other Factors Influencing Tooth Color

However, not all fossil shark teeth at Myrtle Beach are black. Some display lighter white, tan, yellowish, or brownish colors indicating variabilities in the permineralization process. What other factors may affect the coloration of these ancient teeth?

  1. Oxidation – Any pyrite in the tooth may have oxidized into red or yellow iron oxide minerals like limonite or hematite. This creates shades of rusty reddish-brown coloration.
  2. Mineral Coatings – Outer mineral crusts of calcite, silica, or iron oxides that coated the tooth during burial can modify color.
  3. Degree of Pyritization – Teeth with less pyrite uptake will be lighter in color. The extent of pyritization affects color intensity.
  4. Recrystallization – Enamel recrystallizing into minerals like fluorapatite or microcrystalline quartz rather than pyrite may alter color depending on the mineral deposited.
  5. Weathering Effects – Environmental weathering from sun bleaching, erosion, water exposure, or microbial boring can leach, oxidize, and modify fossil color over time.
  6. Individual Variability – The unique fossilization history of each tooth based on the immediate burial surroundings leads to color variability even within a small area.

So while pyritization accounts for black Myrtle Beach shark teeth, the complexities of the fossilization process create a range of coloration from jet black to light tan across different teeth. Careful inspection of these subtle color differences can provide clues into the permineralization history of individual fossils.

Prime Shark Tooth Hunting Beaches

Where are the best places to search for darker fossil shark teeth in the Myrtle Beach area? The ideal beaches are those with exposures of the blackish-green Calabash Formation which likely harbor abundant pyritized teeth. Here are some of the prime fossil shark tooth hunting locations to explore:

Myrtle Beach State Park

This popular state park south of central Myrtle Beach has over a mile of shoreline with the Calabash Formation exposed in cliffs and visible during low tides. Abundant Miocene shark teeth wash ashore including two extinct species – the megatooth shark Otodus megalodon and the snaggletooth shark Hemipristis serra. Teeth range from lemon, tiger, bull and sand tiger sharks also populate the sands. Careful searching may reveal darkly colored pyritized teeth contrasting against the tan sands. Early morning and evening are best times to hunt when raking sunlight illuminates teeth.

Huntington Beach State Park

Another highly fossiliferous state park located just south of Myrtle Beach. Shark teeth date 3 to 5 million years old continually wash ashore, with black and brown colors common due to pyritization. Lower tides reveal the Calabash Formation while stronger storm waves stir up fossils onto the beach. Target areas include first tide line near the jetty and creek inlets which concentrate fossils. Prime hunting is late summer into fall when storms are more frequent.

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Apache Family Campground

This campground and pier in northern Myrtle Beach grants access to black lithified sediments of the Calabash Formation, but only at lower tides. Extensive walking during extreme low tides is needed to search for Miocene fossils. But this difficult access makes Apache Fishing Pier an untouched destination with fossils yet to be discovered. Once underwater, ancient teeth accumulate in troughs, pits, and pockets in the dark weathered strata. Sharp eyes may spot glints of black teeth amongst shell debris.

Garden City Beach

A fossil hotspot south of Myrtle Beach traditionally called the “shark tooth capital of the East Coast.” Abundant Pliocene and Miocene shark teeth wash up including rare black teeth from megalodon and other shark species. Lower beach zones with black sands are productive hunting grounds after storms. Garden City Beach sees fewer visitors than busier parks allowing more opportunities to search for untouched black teeth.

Beach Description Common Shark Species
Myrtle Beach State Park Exposed Calabash Formation visible at low tide with abundant Miocene fossils Tiger, lemon, bull, sand tiger, megatooth, and snaggletooth sharks
Huntington Beach State Park Teeth 3-5 million years old wash up including black & brown teeth Extinct Pliocene shark species
Apache Family Campground Only accessible at extreme low tides, untapped fossil deposits Tiger and sand tiger sharks
Garden City Beach Known as the “shark tooth capital.” Rare black Megalodon teeth found here Megalodon, bull, tiger, lemon sharks

Offshore Sites

For the adventurous, chartering a shark tooth diving trip offshore unlocks entirely new fossil hunting grounds away from picked-over beaches. Diving to offshore ledges, shoals, and drowned river channels brings collectors to untouched fossil beds. Here Megalodon teeth are common along with an abundance of other Miocene shark species. Teeth display a range of colors, though pyritized black or dark brown fossils are most prized. Visibility is often poor, making every unexpected glint of black a thrilling discovery.

Hunting Tips for Beachcombing Enthusiasts

For amateur fossil collectors looking to find their own authentic black shark tooth, here are some useful tips to maximize your chances beachcombing the shoreline:

  • Learn to identify teeth – Familiarize yourself with the triangular shape and serrated edges of shark teeth so you can spot them easily.
  • Search low tide zones – Lower tides expose more fossiliferous sediments, especially tidepools, creeks, and rock jetties.
  • Scan for black sediments – Target dark patches of sand, pebbles, or eroded strata which signal potential fossils.
  • Let sunlight assist – Early morning or evening sun striking the beach at an angle highlights teeth.
  • Look for surface glints – Wet or dry teeth can glint in the sunlight, attracting the eye.
  • Dig through sediments – Carefully digging and sifting sediments may uncover buried teeth. Return sediments afterward.
  • Check after storms – Big waves and storms stir up sediments and concentrate fossils on the beach.
  • Bring a sifter – Fine mesh sifters help isolate tiny teeth from gravel and shell debris.
  • Be patient – Hunting takes luck and patience. Don’t get discouraged by other collectors. New teeth continually wash ashore.

With sharp eyes and persistence, an unforgettable black shark tooth may await discovery on your next beach outing. Any unique tooth should be treasured as an ancient memento from South Carolina’s glorious Miocene seas.

Chesapeake Bay Area Shark Teeth

Chesapeake Bay Area Shark Teeth

The iconic black shark teeth found at Myrtle Beach should not overshadow other prime shark tooth hunting areas of the Eastern United States. The sediments and river systems surrounding Chesapeake Bay which empty into the Atlantic Ocean also contain abundant Miocene and Pliocene fossils.

During prehistoric times, this region was the site of a meteor impact creating the Chesapeake Bay Impact Crater 35 million years ago. Later Miocene sediments filled the crater, lithifying into rock units of the Calvert, Choptank, and St. Mary’s Formations which are exposed along cliff faces, beaches, and river banks surrounding the Chesapeake Bay.

These fossiliferous units accumulated as river delta sediments in coastal embayments and shallow marine environments. Dark sediments enriched in glauconite were ideal for fossilization, producing teeth ranging from Hemipristis serra, Carcharocles megalodon, Carcharias taurus, Otodus obliquus, Cosmopolitodus hastalis, Isurus oxyrinchus, and many others. While pyritization also occurred, teeth exhibit more varied shades of black, brown, tan and cream rather than uniform black.

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Well known Chesapeake Bay shark tooth hunting grounds include Calvert Cliffs, Brownie’s Beach, Matoaka Beach, Flag Ponds Nature Park, Venice Beach, Purse State Park, and the shores of Chesapeake Bay. Screen washing from the Choptank or Calvert Formation is another productive way to uncover rare Miocene sharks teeth for dedicated collectors.

Shark Tooth Fossil Hunting Ethics

The abundance of shark teeth washing up on Myrtle Beach and Chesapeake Bay shores makes these areas prime fossil hunting grounds drawing enthusiasts across the world. However, it is vital that collectors follow ethical guidelines to preserve these invaluable natural resources for the future:

  • Learn local laws and regulations on collecting fossils from beaches and cliffs. Taking protected fossils may carry fines or other penalties.
  • Only collect what you can reasonably use for your collection or research. Avoid removing rare or unique fossils that belong in museums.
  • Assist in conservation efforts by reporting major fossil finds to local experts and participating in fossil monitoring programs.
  • Refill any holes dug on beaches and cliffs after fossil hunting. Do not leave lasting damage to environments. Avoid using picks or hammers which can permanently scar cliff faces.
  • Share knowledge and passion for fossils to educate others, but discourage destructive collecting practices that deplete limited resources.

Following these simple paleontological guidelines helps sustain fossil shark teeth at Myrtle Beach, Chesapeake Bay and other fossil sites for generations to come. Future museums will rely on specimens collected responsibly by today’s researchers and enthusiasts.

The Allure of Fossil Teeth

What drives the allure and passion for collecting these fossilized triangular relics millions of years old? Some reasons these unique traces of prehistory captivate imagination:

  • Prehistoric Mysteries – They provide tangible connections to shark species from incomprehensibly ancient landscapes, prompting awe and questions into vanished ecosystems.
  • Megalodon Enigma – Black Megalodon teeth hint at the immense power of this apex predator, the largest shark to ever live.
  • Rarity – Every fossil tooth is unique with subtle shape and color variations making them precious finds.
  • Beauty – The sleek geometry, serrations, and mineral stained colors make shark teeth intrinsically beautiful objects.
  • Adventure – Searching remote beaches and underwater fossil beds seeking prehistoric treasure invokes a spirit of adventure.
  • Virtually Unchanged – Despite millions of years, shark teeth morphologies remain remarkably similar to modern species, illustrating shark evolution.

These factors and more make fossil shark teeth irresistible for amateur collectors and researchers alike. There are always new teeth waiting to be discovered along the shoreline or just offshore.


In summary, the darkened color of many Myrtle Beach fossil shark teeth stems from the abundance of pyrite in the surrounding Calabash Formation which infiltrated and mineralized the teeth over millions of years through permineralization. This pyritization process created black iron sulfide compounds and oxides that gave the fossils their characteristic grayish-black hue, in contrast to the lighter colors of teeth fossilized without pyrite influence. However, factors like weathering, oxidation, recrystallization, and tooth mineralogy can also influence color variability across specimens.

For beachcombers, the shores of Myrtle Beach provide tantalizing opportunities to find your own darkened fossil shark tooth millions of years in the making. From massive teeth of the legendary Megalodon to sand sharks no larger than your fingernail, each tiny remnant provides a tangible piece of the vast prehistoric ecosystem that once flourished in this region. With knowledge of shark tooth biology, the local geology, fossilization, patience, and some good fortune, the discovery of one of these ancient jet black teeth glistening under the sun awaits.

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